Beyond Classical Gamification: In- and Around-Game Gamification for Education

Beyond Classical Gamification: In- and Around-Game Gamification for Education

Abstract

The modern gamification movement, following the classical definition of Deterding (2011), is focused on the use of game elements in non-game applications. According to this definition, gamification elements use familiar elements from games to satisfy player needs, increase the user experience and motivation; hence ensuring a long-term use. However, such approaches including those put forth by Kapp (2012), Stampfl (2012) and Zichermann (2011, 2013) preclude the conceptualisation and application of gamification within and around games. Indeed, gaming environments have the potential to successfully integrate solid gamification examples. The authors propose two new categories of gamification: 'in-game’ and 'around-game’ gamification. The ‘In-game’ type of gamification details the use of an additional layer of tasks, badges, achievements, point systems, etc. in a (digital) game, which are not directly related to the storyline of the game. For instance, certain games would reward with a badge if the player collects multiple items of the same species throughout gameplay, even if such a task is independent of or extraneous to the narrative/backstory of the game. ‘Around-game’ gamification occurs when, for example, the player receives a badge after starting the game 100 times, clicking on the forum 50 times, etc. So, in essence, this form of gamification is associated with the game, but does not happen directly inside the game world. Hence, the authors propose the following up-to-date definition of the term gamification: The use of game mechanics as a further dimension within and around both gaming and non-gaming contexts, in an endeavour to nudge participants to perform certain actions, by adopting a playful attitude. For the purpose of this paper, the authors have held talks with 23 international experts on the topic and extend the principles of ‘in-game’ and ‘around-game’ gamification to an educational context.

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Authors
  • Pfeiffer, Alexander
  • Bezzina, Stephen
  • König, Nikolaus
  • Kriglstein, Simone
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Shortfacts
Category
Paper in Conference Proceedings or in Workshop Proceedings (Paper)
Event Title
19th European Conference on e-Learning (ECEL)
Divisions
Computer Science Didactics and Learning Research Center
Subjects
Angewandte Informatik
Computer in der Freizeit
Informatik Sonstiges
Event Location
Berlin, Germany
Event Type
Conference
Event Dates
18-30 Oktober
Date
2020
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